Presentations & Events
- September 5, 2013, 6-9 pm Protect Our Public Lands + Waters
Portland, Oregon (Lizard Lounge)
We invite you to us to celebrate and take action to protect Western Oregon’s public lands and waters! We are excited to partner up with the Coalition For Our O&C Lands and Lizard Lounge for an evening of music, brews, photos from the International League of Conservation Photographers (iLCP), gear giveaways and to take action to protect Oregon’s wild and wonderful public lands!
Do your part to protect your own backyard! If you can’t make it, visit: http://oclands.org/post-card to take action and learn more about how you can help.
- July 10, 2013, 5:30-8:30 pm Protecting Water: Sundown PDX Concert Series
Portland, Oregon (Ecotrust Building)
Join Wild Salmon Center and other local non-profits for a FREE outdoor concert celebrating our water resources and the organizations that protect them. Ecotrust’s “Protecting Water” installment of this annual summer concert series will feature local bands Onuinu and Adventure Galley, food and beverages from Hot Lips and Laughing Planet, and exhibition-style booths with activities for the whole family.
Wild Salmon Center will be there on July 10th to share some of our current projects, offer special WSC raffle prizes, and connect with local salmon-lovers. The concert will take place 5:30-8:30 pm at the Jean Vollum Natural Capital Center at 721 NW Ninth Avenue, Portland, OR 97209. Learn more at the concert’s Facebook page or view photos from last year’s event.
- May 29, 2013, 6:30 pm Please Stop the Pebble Mine
Portland, Oregon (Ecotrust Building)
We can help preserve the world’s largest wild salmon fishery. We can help stop Alaska’s proposed Pebble Mine and protect Bristol Bay. But this May, decision makers must hear from us. The EPA has a 30-day comment window open on its Bristol Bay Watershed Assessment.
Admission is FREE, all ages, open to anyone interested. We have postcards and free beer. Please join us to get an update from the field, hear from experts, and contribute to a robust public record. Alaska’s never denied a major mining permit. The EPA has the authority to ensure the fishery is protected. Your comments will support their decision to do so. Hosted and sponsored by a coalition of organizations, businesses, and individuals who oppose the mine.
- April 27, 2013, 3:30 pm TEDx Talk: Salmon Strongholds
Wild Salmon Center President Guido Rahr gives a TEDx talk on the subject of “Salmon Strongholds” – the healthiest salmon ecosystems across the North Pacific. Wild Salmon Center is leading the Salmon Stronghold Initiative by investing resources into watersheds that support wild, diverse, and abundant populations to ensure the long-term survival of the species. Stay tuned for final video.
- October 3, 2012 Multimedia Presentations by Florian Schulz
Explore the Arctic through the astounding images, stories, and videos from award-winning photographer Florian Schulz. With complimentary beverages provided by New Belgium Brewing and food by Hot Lips Pizza. Presented by Alaska Wilderness League, Braided River, Wild Salmon Center, CLIF Bar, Osprey Packs, Patagonia, Klean Kanteen. The event kicks off at 5:30 PM at Jean Vollum Natural Capital Center (Billy Frank Jr. Conference Room).
Wild Salmon Center will be there to discuss its conservation work in Alaska and the significance of the region to wild salmon populations.
- July 26, 2012 Oregon Board of Forestry Meeting
Help ensure the long-term protection of areas important to clean water, fish and wildlife, and outdoor recreation. Join us July 26 for the Oregon Board of Forestry meeting in Tillamook to decide the fate of new "conservation areas" designated on Oregon state forests. BBQ lunch at starting at 10:30 at the fairground in Tillamook with meeting following!
Find out more at: www.forestlegacy.org
- July 5, 2012 Ecotrust Sundown Concert Series: Protecting Water
Join Wild Salmon Center and other local non-profits for a FREE outdoor concert celebrating our water resources and the organizations that work to protect them. Ecotrust’s water-themed installment of this annual summer concert series will feature local bands Typhoon and AU, food and beverages from Hot Lips and Laughing Planet, and exhibition-style booths with activities for the whole family. Wild Salmon Center will be there on July 5th to share some of our current projects, offer special WSC raffle prizes and connect with our local supporters. The concert will take place 5:30-8:30 pm at the Jean Vollum Natural Capital Center at 721 NW Ninth Avenue, Portland, OR 97209. Learn more at the concert series web site or view photos from last year’s event.
- May 31, 2012 Bristol Bay Watershed Assessment Public Hearing
The time has come to stand up, speak out, and be counted on one of the biggest conservation issues of our time. You can help stop the Pebble mine in Bristol Bay, Alaska and protect 14,000 fishing jobs and the biggest wild sockeye salmon fishery on the planet. The EPA is holding a Public Hearing in Seattle and wants to hear your thoughts on the Pebble mine and Bristol Bay. We’re asking all of WSC’s partners, friends, and supporters to attend this hearing and stand for Bristol Bay. The hearing is Thursday, May 31 at 2 pm in the Jackson Federal Building, North Auditorium (915 Second Avenue, Seattle, WA).
If you missed the hearing, public comments are being accepted until July 24th and you can sign Senator Maria Cantwell's peition in opposition to the Pebble Mine.
- May 22, 2012 Evening Enrichment on Wild Salmon: Bristol Bay's Red Gold
Monterey Bay Aquarium, California
Please join us for a screening of "Red Gold"—an award-winning documentary on Alaska's Bristol Bay, the world's most abundant sockeye (red) salmon fishery, and the threats from the proposed Pebble Mine. Hosted by Wild Salmon Center, the Monterey Bay Aquarium, and Trout Unlimited. This event is free and open to the public. RSVP appreciated. See flyer for more information and watch the trailer for "Red Gold".
- December 9-10, 2011 International Taimen Symposium and Workshop
Auckland, New Zealand
Wild Salmon Center is facilitating a symposium and workshop on taimen as part of the annual meeting of the Society for Conservation Biology: "Conserving the largest salmon in the world: Challenges and opportunities to protect taimen as threats escalate throughout northern Eurasia". Find out more.
- November 15 -17, 2011 State of the Salmon Workshop
Hilton Portland, Oregon
Please join State of the Salmon for Salmon in a Changing Climate: Practical management options for an era of environmental change. This international, participatory workshop will examine whether decisions about management of salmon and their habitats can be practically informed by the newest scientific insights on expected responses of wild Pacific salmon to climate and environmental change. A steering committee of leaders in the management, sustainable harvest, and research sectors will guide the agenda and sessions to ensure diversity of perspectives and creative engagement of participants. See the latest agenda, find out more, and register.
- October 19, 2011, 7 pm Save Bristol Bay Road Show
Bagdad Theater in Portland, Oregon
Wild Salmon Center joins Trout Unlimited and partners for a screening of "Red Gold" an award-winning documentary on Alaska's Bristol Bay—on Wednesday, October 19 at the Bagdad Theater in Portland, Oregon. The Bristol Bay watershed is home to the Kvichak and Nushagak rivers, which boast the two most prolific sockeye salmon runs in the world. Enjoy food, drinks, and an award winning documentary by Felt Soul Media, and learn more about the fight to save this globally important salmon stronghold. This event is free and open to the public. RSVPs are recommended.
- October 13, 2011, 7 pm "Connect" Film Premiere
Cinema 21 in Portland, Oregon
Wild Salmon Center joins The Freshwater Trust and partners for the Portland premiere of "Connect". A Confluence Films Production, introduces a number of new locations, exotic species, and compelling characters that epitomize and exemplify the sport of fly fishing. Shot on location in Japan, Yellowstone National Park, the Yukon Drainage of Alaska, the flats of Cuba, the coast of Maine, and in the wilds of Tanzania, Africa, this feature-length movie will transport viewers around the world in search of new waters and exhilarating travel experiences. Doors open at 6:30.
- April 14, 2011, 7 pm Wild Salmon Rising Event
Boothster at 521 NE Davis in Portland, Oregon
Wild Salmon Center and Save Our Wild Salmon present a screening of "Eastern Rises" and "The Greatest Migration" -- stories about two of the greatest salmon rivers on earth. In Felt Soul Media's Eastern Rises, fishing is poetry and Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula isthe Holy Grail for fly fishermen who go on an adventure of a lifetime. In EP Films' The Greatest Migration, we follow endangered Snake River salmon as they tackle an incredible journey from Alaska to Idaho's wild and rugged Sawtooth Mountains--swimming farther and climbing higher than any salmon on Earth. FREE Entry, 21 and over. $5 gets you a Klean Kanteen steel pint and beer for the night (steel pints limited to first 75 people!) $5 gets you 3 raffle tickets for great prizes from Osprey Packs, Patagonia, Idylwilde Flies, Rio Products, Sage and more! Doors open at 7pm, films start at 7:30pm. Join us for an evening of films, local brews, wild smoked salmon and gear giveaways!
- September 25, 2010 Wilson River Clean-Up
Tillamook Forest Center, Oregon
Join Wild Salmon Center and our co-sponsors for an afternoon on the Wilson River Saturday, September 25 from 10 am to 1 pm. To sign up or receive more information email organizer Jay Humphry.
- August 2010 Second International Salmon Camp
Sakhalin Island, Russia
Salmon Stewardship Summit is a 12 day residential camp program for American and Russian students which focuses on environmental stewardship and leadership. The camp is hosted by the Sakhalin Salmon Inititive, The Freshwater Trust, and the Siuslaw Institute. Read the story from last year's International Salmon Camp in Oregon.
- June 16, 2010 Annual North American Salmon Stronghold Partnership Meeting
On Wednesday, June 16, partners are invited to join the Stronghold Partnership Board in a discussion of the threats emerging across multiple strongholds. The day will feature presentations from state, federal, and NGO partners on fish management, climate change, land use and development, invasive species proliferation, and other challenges to the conservation of strong wild salmon populations. The "Notes from the Field" portion of the agenda will highlight efforts in and across the Pacific Northwest and California to advance the stronghold approach. The agenda will also provide an update on the Pacific Salmon Stronghold Conservation Act and feature a film on strongholds produced by the International League of Conservation Photographers and Wild Salmon Center. An informal rooftop barbeque reception for Steering Committee members, partners and friends will be held June 15 from 6-8. To RSVP for both the meeting and reception, please send an email with your contact information to Trozell Weaver at email@example.com. Please RSVP by June 8th, and note whether you will be attending the reception, meeting or both events.
- May 4, 2010 Wild Salmon Center Spring Dinner
Join Wild Salmon Center as we welcome Tom Brokaw to our spring dinner to celebrate wild salmon conservation across the Pacific Rim. We will also launch the first pan-Pacific conference on the ecological impacts of salmon and steelhead hatcheries—hosted by State of the Salmon, a joint program of WSC and Ecotrust.
- May 4-7, 2010 State of the Salmon 2010 Conference
State of the Salmon's 2010 Conference, "Ecological Interactions between Wild & Hatchery Salmon", is the first international effort to explore the scale and magnitude of the ecological effects of hatcheries, identify important gaps in our knowledge and work towards resolving key issues. State of the Salmon is a joint program of the Wild Salmon Center and Ecotrust, the only non-governmental program dedicated to evaluating status and conservation challenges of wild North Pacific salmon across the its entire range.
- April 21, 2010 Salmon Strongholds: short film premiere and Congressional briefing
Capitol Building, Washington D.C.
Wild Salmon Center and the International League of Conservation Photographers (iLCP) are hosting a special short film premiere and Congressional briefing on Salmon Stronghold conservation across the North Pacific. With special remarks from Congressman Mike Thompson (CA-1st), Valdis Mezainis (Director of U.S. Forest Service International Programs), Robert Glenn Ketchum (iLCP fellow), and Guido Rahr (President of Wild Salmon Center). By invitation only.
- November 15-17, 2009 Russian Sustainable Fisheries Coalition Meeting
More than 35 experts and key stakeholders converged at this meeting, including representatives from the nonprofit, government and private sectors. Goals of the meeting included: assessing the status and trends of commercial salmon fisheries in Russia, discussing barriers to sustainability on wild salmon populations such as illegal fisheries, and developing joint strategies to overcome barriers.
- September 9, 2009 Oregon Board of Forestry Meeting
The Oregon Board of Forestry considers the next steps in their work to revise the current management plan voted on in June which opens 70% of the Tillamook and Clatsop state forests to widespread timber clear-cutting. Find out more, including how you can support our efforts to protect critical salmon habitat.
- July 22-August 2, 2009 Salmon Stewardship Summit
Camp Arrah Wanna, Oregon
Salmon Stewardship Summit is a 12 day residential camp program for American and Russian students which focuses on environmental stewardship and leadership. See the flyer and learn more about the first annual Salmon Stewardship Summit.
- April, 2009 Protected Areas Management Workshop
A workshop focusing on protected area management in the Columbia River Basin conducted by faculty members from the Executive Leadership Institute at Portland State University. Guests include WSC partners from Kamchatka and Khabarovsk. Learn more.
- February 2-5, 2009 State of the Salmon Conference 2009, "Bringing the Future into Focus"
State of the Salmon's second international conference, "Bringing the Future into Focus," is the only conference dedicated to the conservation of Pacific salmon throughout their native range. Rapidly changing climate, habitat and markets highlight the need for key scientific information and effective management practices from the Pacific Rim salmon nations. State of the Salmon is a joint program of Wild Salmon Center and Ecotrust. Learn more.
- November 12-13, 2008 Russian Far East Sustainable Fisheries Workshop
The second annual Sustainable Fisheries coordination meeting with NGO and private sector partners coming together to identify and prioritize key barriers to sustainable salmon fisheries in the Russian Far East (RFE) and develop common strategies to address them. Learn more.
- November 13 - 14, 2007 Russian Far East Sustainable Fisheries Workshop
Leading experts in the field from Russia, the US, and Europe convened to explore innovative market based approaches to supporting sustainable fisheries.
- October 31, 2006 - November 2, 2006 Sakhalin Salmon Initiative International Conference
SakhInCenter, Yuzhno Sakhalinsk, Sakhalin
The Sakhalin Salmon Initiative International Conference will convene representatives of Russian and local governments, academia, local and indigenous communities, non-governmental organizations, fishing and extractive industries and international organizations. These stakeholders will elaborate the SSI's strategic priorities and have substantive discussions on its specific projects, discuss how its stakeholders can best work together, and ensure that it secures institutional support and the endorsement and ownership of stakeholders.
- January 28-30, 2005 Measure 34 - Balancing the election result with the future of the Tillamook and Clatsop State Forests in Northwestern Oregon
Part of Headwaters 13th Annual Forest Conference "Beyond Boundaries - Protecting Public, Industrial, and Private Forests throughout the Americas".
David Moskowitz and Mari Anne Gest of the Wild Salmon Center and Tillamook Fishing Guide Bob Rees will discuss the inspiration for, development of and outcomes from Measure 34 - the statewide ballot measure that aimed to change the forest management plan for the Tillamook and Clatsop State Forests in Northwestern Oregon. The presenters will describe how the concept was created, how the campaign went, and analyze results. Presenters will also discuss the potential next steps for state forest activists, as well as conservation opportunities on state lands that may arise in the 2005 Oregon Legislative Session.
- February 16, 2005 Salmon 2100: Sanctuaries for Wild Salmon
Part of the Oregon Chapter of the American Fisheries Society's 41st annual meeting.
Wild Salmon Center President and CEO Guido Rahr will discuss the Wild Salmon Center's vision of a network of watersheds and subwatershed "sanctuaries" for native salmon extending from California to Korea.
- February 22, 2005 Conserving Salmon from Korea to California
Part of the Oregon Zoo's 2005 Wildlife Conservation Lecture Series, sponsored by the Audubon Society of Portland, the Oregon Zoo and the World Forestry Center.
From Oregon to Kamchatka, Wild Salmon Center Director of Science Xanthippe Augerot has investigated people's knowledge about fish and what they do with their knowledge. Dr. Augerot works with researchers in Russia, Japan, Canada and the United States to foster better salmon information and management across the North Pacific.
- September 21, 2004 Climate Impacts on Salmon Recovery and Management in the Columbia River Basin
Hosted by the Climate Impacts Group (CIG) at the University of Washington.
"Favorable ocean conditions" have been identified in recent years as a major contributing factor for the improved salmon runs in the Pacific Northwest. These ocean conditions are subject to change, however. How can we use what we know about changes in ocean conditions and other climate impacts in salmon management and recovery to increase the success of these activities?
The Climate Impacts Group (CIG) at the University of Washington invites PNW resource managers and technical level staff from federal, state, tribal and local level resource management agencies, public/private utilities, and other interested parties to participate in a one day workshop on the impacts of climate variability and change on salmon management and recovery in the Columbia River basin. The meeting will be held on September 21, 2004 in Portland, Oregon.
- May 2-6, 2004 Fourth World Fisheries Congress
Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
Hosted by the American Fisheries Society.
The American Fisheries Society invites you to the Fourth World Fisheries Congress to be held in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada from May 2 - 6, 2004. The Congress will be headquartered in the historic Fairmont Hotel Vancouver and the newly renovated Hyatt Regency Vancouver, located in the heart of downtown Vancouver.
The Congress theme, Reconciling Fisheries with Conservation: The Challenge of Managing Aquatic Ecosystems, will be addressed by a world class list of keynote speakers, session topics, posters, limited presentations, round table discussions, forums, workshops and debates.
Presentations by Wild Salmon Center staff, board, and scientific advisors:
- Monitoring Strategy for the Conservation of North Pacific Salmon – a System for Detecting Changes in Status and Trends
- A Srategy for the Conservation of Kamchatkan Parasalmo (Oncorhynchus) Mykiss
Dmitry S. Pavlov, Ksenia A. Savvaitova and Xanthippe Augerot
- Reconciling Fisheries With Conservation in Freshwaters (keynote address)
Jack A. Stanford
- Temperate Floodplain Ponds as Fish Nurseries and Mediators of Exotic Invasions
Samantha Dawn Chilcote and Jack A. Stanford
- Watershed Dynamics Acting on Migration Energetics of Salmon Buffer Effects of Global Climate Change
- Monitoring Strategy for the Conservation of North Pacific Salmon – a System for Detecting Changes in Status and Trends
- March 8-12, 2004 Second Annual North Pacific Salmon Monitoring Workshop
The Resort at the Mountain, Welches, Oregon
Hosted by the State of the Salmon Program.
This is a joint, invite-only workshop to discuss the development of a monitoring strategy for Pacific Rim Salmonids and to review protocols for counting and collecting salmonids, resident fish, and lamprey in the Pacific Northwest. Ultimately, the goal of this series of workshops is the creation of a common set of metrics and monitoring protocols that will enable us to assess salmon biodiversity and trends in abundance in a universal and consistent data language. State of the Salmon approaches the problem from two directions: first, on a broad, Pacific-Rim scale by assessing the salmon data landscape; second, at the regional Columbia River basin-level, by reviewing and standardizing existing monitoring protocols as a first step toward broader international application.
- March 17-20, 2004 "Collaborative Watershed Efforts for Salmonid Recovery" - 22nd Annual Salmonid Restoration Conference & 14th International Salmonid Habitat Enhancement Workshop
Hosted by the Salmonid Restoration Federation, American Fisheries Society-Fisheries Management Section and Trout Unlimited Salmon in the global context, with discussion by Dave Martin of Wild Salmon Center.
The 22nd Annual Salmonid Restoration Conference and 14th International Salmonid Habitat Enhancement Workshop will be held in Davis, California at the Veteran's Memorial Center from Wednesday, March 17th through Saturday, March 20th, 2004. The Salmonid Restoration Federation will host this conference entitled "Collaborative Watershed Efforts for Salmonid Recovery" in collaboration with the American Fisheries Society-Fisheries Management Section and Trout Unlimited.
The first two days will be filled with full-day workshops and field tours. A half-day, theme related plenary session will be followed by one and a half-days of technical and policy concurrent sessions. This conference focuses on a broad range of salmonid and watershed restoration topics of concern to restoration practitioners, agency scientists, and land planners and owners.
- October 14-15, 2003 Recreational Fisheries Management Exchange
While confronting the pressures of commercial fishing, illegal poaching and habitat loss, management agencies are struggling to manage their freshwater fisheries in the face of diminished financial and staffing resources and the advent of sportfishing tourism as a viable industry. While recreational fisheries for salmon and trout are relatively new in Russia, Canadian and U.S. fisheries agencies have abundant experience managing angler demand on economically and ecologically valuable salmon and trout rivers. This exchange is intended to enable leaders in the Russian Far East's regional fisheries management agencies to benefit from the expertise of North American fisheries managers in devising ecologically, socially and financially responsible strategies to handle recreational angling demand.
In the first component of this exchange program, American and Canadian managers will discuss techniques and management priorities for addressing sportfishing demand with representatives from Russian Far East regional fisheries agencies. The second component, scheduled for May 2004, will enable Russian fisheries managers to participate in sportfishing management activities on river systems in the United States.
- August 10-14, 2003 American Fisheries Association Annual Meeting
Quebec City, Quebec
The highly discussed, studied, and debated topic of marine protected areas has been expanded and more broadly defined, at least for the purposes of this project, to include freshwater concerns and engage government agencies whose research and management mandates include freshwater fisheries resources. Such protected areas are being looked upon as means to accomplish a variety of objectives including (but not restricted to) protection of fish stocks, control of fishing effort, protection of critical fish habitat, creation of spawning and recruitment refugia, and enhancement of species biodiversity. However, the principal focus for the project will be limited primarily to a critical examination of the role of protected areas as tools for fisheries management.
Guido Rahr and Xanthippe Augerot of the Wild Salmon Center will speak on August 12, 2003, 3:00 pm on Protected Areas for Native Salmon: A strategy for protecting salmonid biodiversity across the northern Pacific Rim
- June 10-13, 2003 World Summit on Salmon
Vancouver, British Columbia
This summit, part of the Speaking for the Salmon series, examined the current status of global fisheries, the recent collapse of coastal ecosystems (e.g. the North Atlantic cod fishery) and the future prospects of endangered and depleted fish stocks, and applied the lessons learned to improve the prognosis for wild salmon in the Atlantic and Pacific.
Leading experts and participants discussed current stock status for salmon in the Pacific and North Atlantic; knowledge gaps in salmon science; factors threatening the future of wild salmon including climate change, aquaculture and hatchery policies, overfishing, habitat destruction, urbanization and pollution.
Wild Salmon Center President Guido Rahr spoke on Protected Areas for Native Salmon: a Strategy for Protecting Salmonid Biodiversity Across the Northern Pacific Rim. Director of Conservation, Dr. Xanthippe Augerot, spoke on Salmon Stocks and Habitat in the Russian Far East.
- May 4-7, 2003 North Pacific Salmon Protected Areas Workshop
Khabarovsk, Russian Federation
Salmon protected areas are at the core of Wild Salmon Center's mission to protect wild salmonids across the Pacific Rim. The goal of the workshop was to develop effective strategies for creating and supporting salmon protected areas around the Pacific Rim, primarily in Russia. Participants shared case studies from Russia and North America on efforts to create and sustainably manage salmon protected areas, and discuss common issues such as legislative obstacles, the role of indigenous communities in salmon protected areas, and ecotourism. Participants also discussed terminology and a hierarchy to describe salmon protected areas. In particular, the workshop provided an opportunity for groups from across the Russian Far East to meet and discuss their efforts with each other and with groups from North America involved in similar efforts. Please contact Dave Martin at the Wild Salmon Center with any questions, firstname.lastname@example.org, 503-222-1804.
- May 1, 2002 American Fisheries Society Western Division Annual Meeting
Evaluating refugia within a large-scale, salmonid monitoring project in the Hoh River Basin
John McMillan, Wild Salmon Center Salmonid Ecologist
ABSTRACT: Identifying salmonid refugia is a relatively new challenge for conservationists. Our goal is to identify and prioritize refugia for adult and juvenile salmonids in the Hoh River basin. This basin is large, with an extensive, active floodplain located on the Olympic Peninsula, Washington. We selected a total of 14 survey sites, from spring-brooks to the mainstem. We conducted snorkel surveys during the summer and winter of 2000/2001 and 2001/2002 to determine the abundance and diversity of juvenile salmonids. Redd counts conducted by the Hoh Indian Tribe and the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife from 1990-2000 provided spawner abundance and distribution estimates for adult salmonids. We also collected habitat measurements following the Oregon DFW Aquatic Inventory (1998) protocol. These results demonstrated that mainstem floodplain habitat supports the greatest abundance and diversity of juvenile salmonids followed closely by main valley tributaries. Analysis of the redd counts suggest that the mainstem river and four main valley tributaries are disproportionately important for spawning salmonids. Results indicate that core mainstem habitat had the highest densities of rearing juvenile fish, during both summer and winter months. Overall, we successfully identified key sub-watersheds that had the highest densities of spawners and rearing juvenile fish and which could be targeted for protection within conservation strategies.
Presented in conjunction with Steve Katz and George Pess of the National Marine Fisheries Service.